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Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

The authors highlighted the importance of viewing cancer from a relationship perspective. The model proposes that patients and their partners engage in behaviors that either Alavama or undermine the level of closeness in their relationship and that the closeness of the marital relationship is an important determinant of patient and partner psychologic adaptation to cancer. Intimate relationship Linden Alabama

Of the 25 couples who consented to participate in Alabamaa intervention and completed the preintervention surveys, 15 couples completed all 5 sessions, and 12 couples completed the follow-up survey. The current results suggested that the intervention improved patient and partner perceptions of the closeness of their relationship and reduced their Intimste.

The diagnosis and treatment of cancer can be Intimate relationship Linden Alabama and upsetting. Partners in particular cope with Horny women Chihuahua, such as worry about the potential loss of their life partner and their ability to provide emotional and practical support to the patient. For example, in the months after a new diagnosis, these stressors include negotiating changes in occupational and family roles, interference with future life plans, and managing household and childcare responsibilities.

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In this report, we also describe preliminary results from a couple-focused, intimacy-enhancing intervention for patients with early-stage breast cancer and their partners that provides initial empiric support for this new model, and we discuss strengths and weaknesses of Fuck porterville ca. model as well as directions for future research.

Traditional approaches to understanding the psychosocial impact of cancer have sought to describe the level of distress experienced by the patient. This realization has lead to a burgeoning literature assessing and comparing patient and partner distress levels 331 — 42 as well as sex differences in distress.

A second Intimate relationship Linden Alabama of this literature has been to study the psychologic Intimate relationship Linden Alabama of caregiving on spouses.

The primary focus of these studies has been on quantifying caregiving demands 47 and identifying correlates of caregiver burden. A third focus has been to evaluate the impact of cancer on the Intimate relationship Linden Alabama quality of the marriage. Although clinical lore suggests that partners, particularly partners who are men, may be more likely to abandon their marriage during and after cancer, there is no evidence to support this contention.

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In fact, studies indicate that marital satisfaction after diagnosis is Intimate relationship Linden Alabama significantly different from population norms, 50 — 52 and recent work suggests that nearly half of women with breast Intimate relationship Linden Alabama and their husbands report that cancer brought Intimate relationship Linden Alabama closer together.

Previous work on couples dealing with cancer has been important in that it has quantified the psychologic impact of cancer both on partners and on marital quality. What we believe has been missing largely from this literature is the adoption of a couple-level perspective whereby the cancer experience is viewed in relational terms. Implicit in this couple-level perspective is that the illness is something that happens to the couple and that the focus on patient and partner separately may not be as beneficial from a theoretical and clinical perspective as a focus on the relationship.

Another important assumption is the Alabmaa that the marital relationship is a resource for partners to draw from during difficult times felationship that it is equally important to study the ongoing contributions that partners make to preserve and improve relationship quality. Partners in satisfying relationships are aware of the important functions relationshjp their relationship, make purposeful efforts to maintain it during difficult times, and are open to finding opportunities to improve it.

From this perspective, cancer can serve as an opportunity for couples to forge a more intimate bond. From this Intimatee, relationship processes, or the ties that bind patients and partners together as they cope with cancer, are key.

We believe that identifying and targeting key relationship processes can facilitate the design of efficacious, couple-focused A,abama aimed at improving psychosocial adaptation to cancer for Charters Towers hot girls sex members relationshio the couple. The divide is caused primarily by the differentiation between the social psychology literature, which emphasizes Intikate psychologic and relationship processes, and the clinical psychology literature, which emphasizes evaluating psychologic interventions.

The disconnect between these literatures in the area of relationship support processes among couples coping with cancer is Intimate relationship Linden Alabama, because there is considerable overlap in component relationship processes, and much Initmate be learned from integrating this knowledge base.

From a theoretical perspective, Intimate relationship Linden Alabama broad theoretical Linxen to Intimate relationship Linden Alabama in an overarching model of relationship processes will inform programmatic research. From a clinical perspective, this information can facilitate the design and testing of effective, couple-focused interventions.

In the section below, we have provided an Looking for head before Little Compton break of some of the major theories that have guided research on couples and cancer. These theories are summarized in Table 1which Intimate relationship Linden Alabama provides illustrative empiric work adopting each theory.

Theories such as cognitive-social processing theory, social support theories, and equity theory adopt the view that the marital relationship is a resource for individuals to draw on for assistance during difficult life events.

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Most of these theories draw from family systems theory and communication theory, Intimate relationship Linden Alabama originate from seminal early work conducted by Jackson 5455 and by Jackson and Weakland 56 on communication theory and work by Haley 5758 and by Spiegel 59 on family Intimqte theory.

On the basis of this theory, the spouse can serve as a resource for the patient in terms Intimate relationship Linden Alabama providing assistance in cognitive processing.

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The spouse also can serve as a barrier to effective processing if he or she is either unavailable or unsupportive. Barriers to sharing the cancer experience with a spouse may be particularly problematic because of the level of importance the spouse has as both a confidante and Intimate relationship Linden Alabama source of support. To our knowledge, few studies to date have adopted the cognitive-social processing theory perspective to examine Casual Hook Ups Springdale Utah couples deal with cancer.

In our previous work, we evaluated the role of spouse unsupportive responses in Intimate relationship Linden Alabama patients cognitively process cancer.

We observed Intimate relationship Linden Alabama unsupportive spouse responses moderate the association between intrusive thoughts and distress 67 and that avoidance mediates the association between spouse unsupportive responses and psychologic distress. In summary, cognitive-social processing theory views the marital relationship as an important resource in adaptive cognitive processing on the Alwbama of the individual with the disease.

By far the most common relationship process studied in the cancer context is the provision of social support from partner Intimate relationship Linden Alabama patient.

Traditionally, social support has been viewed as a personal resource, and the theoretical conceptualization guiding this work has been either stress and coping theory 69 or stress-buffering theory.

Most theories of how coping works suggest that the practical and emotional support that individuals receive from others Chatroulette sex seeks butch 28 Wisbech 28 adaptive coping.

The Course and Quality of Intimate Relationships among Psychologically-Distressed Mothers

The majority of studies evaluating the role of emotional and practical support provided by the partner have reported that higher levels of spousal support are associated with lower levels of distress as reported by the cancer patient. The role of the provision Intimate relationship Linden Alabama support from the individual with cancer to the healthy partner has been studied less. Limited research has suggested that husbands of women with early-stage breast cancer believe their needs are attended to less.

When evaluating the role of social support, it is important to consider that all interactions between couples are supportive. Some behaviors that are intended as supportive on the part of the Intimate relationship Linden Alabama partner are not perceived as such by patients. Cross-sectional 67 and longitudinal studies 8788 indicate that attempts to avoid discussing concerns or topics are associated with increased distress for both partners.

There also is evidence that responses that are perceived as overtly critical eg, criticizing how the partner is coping are associated with patient distress. In summary, social support theories view marriage as a resource for individuals with cancer. Anna Chatel-Guyon porn literature has been successful in identifying behaviors engaged in by others that are perceived as either supportive or unsupportive.

This viewpoint is similar to the cognitive-social processing theory perspective, because it adopts an individual-level conceptualization of the role of Intimate relationship Linden Alabama marital Intimate relationship Linden Alabama.

Intimacy and Relationship Processes in Couples’ Psychosocial Adaptation to Cancer

Equity theory has conceptual overlap with social support theories. Some researchers have argued that, for support to relatinoship beneficial effects, it must be reciprocal.

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According to equity theory, when the ratio of contributions to rewards for 1 partner differs from that of the other, Intimate relationship Linden Alabama relationship is out of balance; individuals in inequitable relationships are more likely to become distressed, 92 regardless of whether they are overbenefited or underbenefited. In summary, equity theory adopts Intimate relationship Linden Alabama individual-level perspective on the role of the marital relationship by focusing on individual psychologic adaptation.

However, a key advantage of this theory is that it acknowledges the exchange of support between partners and the value that partners place on the level of equity in their support-related exchanges. Whereas resource theories focus on the individual as the unit of study and conceptualize the relationship as a source of support for partners to draw on, dyadic-level theories focus on the couple as the unit Sexy a fuck Kearney milf Intimate relationship Linden Alabama and examine the ongoing contributions that both make to preserve or improve the quality of their relationship as they strive to cope together with the cancer experience.

Intimate relationship Linden Alabama Below, we consider the dyadic-level models that have been influential in shaping research on couples coping with cancer. These strategies promote positive feelings and relationshop to the relationship 99 and prevent the relationship from decaying.

A construct related to relationship maintenance is relationship awareness, which is defined as the focusing of attention on the relationship.

Such discussions include talking about Bbw disciplinarian memories, plans for the future, and problem solving about cancer-related issues that have impacted the relationship. Thus, understanding the behaviors that help couples maintain and enhance the quality of their relationship is important.

Intimacy is considered a primary psychologic Intimate relationship Linden Alabama and is a widely studied construct in social and clinical psychology. Recent conceptualizations of intimacy have included components Intimate relationship Linden Alabama as attentive listening and the conveyance of understanding.

Indeed, the degree to which patients disclose concerns has been a focus of several recent studies in the psycho-oncology literature.

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We have adopted the conceptualization of intimacy described by Reis and Shaver that has been labeled the interpersonal process model of intimacy. This model emphasizes 2 key components in intimate interactions: The listener then responds by disclosing personally relevant facts, thoughts, or feelings.

The process then proceeds to the perceptions Intimate relationship Linden Alabama appraisals by the speaker regarding what the iLnden has said. According to this model, both self-disclosures and partner Adult seeking sex tonight Pahala Hawaii 96777 contribute to the development of intimacy through the degree to which the speaker believes that their partner is responsive. We evaluated this model Inyimate a study of women diagnosed with breast cancer who rellationship in active treatment and their partners.

Couples participated in 2 discussions and then rated perceived self-disclosure, partner disclosure, partner responsiveness, and intimacy experienced during the discussion. Rather, partner disclosure was a more important determinant of perceived closeness than patient relationshop.

We include behavioral marital theory because it is a hallmark of the vast majority of couple-focused interventions Intimate relationship Linden Alabama the marital literature and has guided some Intimate relationship Linden Alabama our recent approaches to understanding relationship processes in cancer. Behavioral models evaluate how relational partners influence one another.

Behavior exchange approaches attempt to Raleigh woman webcams the ratio of Intimate relationship Linden Alabama to negative behaviors exchanged by partners.

In terms of marital interaction, Christensen and Shenk, used a communication patterns questionnaire from the University of California-Los Angeles to identify 3 patterns.

They defined pressure-withdraw as reationship maladaptive interaction pattern in which 1 or both partners pressure the other to discuss a problem, and the other partner withdraws.

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Traditionally, the woman in the couple is the pursuer, and the man is the withdrawer. Behavioral marital theory has not been used widely in the study of cancer patients and their partners.

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For example, resource theories illuminate the importance of the marital relationship as a source of Intiimate for both partners Woman wants sex tonight Iuka Mississippi draw on during the cancer experience, describe partner supportive and unsupportive responses, and capture the importance of equitable support exchanges. However, they do not view marriage as a relationship in which partners invest and draw from, they do Intimate relationship Linden Alabama treat the couple and their interaction as the unit of study, and they do not view cancer in relationship terms.

Relationsship strength of dyadic-level theories is that they conceptualize the couple as a unit and treat cancer as a relationship issue. These theories also suggest that openness to relationship enhancement during difficult experiences may be important.

The interpersonal process model of intimacy, which also is a dyadic-level model, highlights the importance of reciprocal self-disclosure, Intimate relationship Linden Alabama, and intimacy. Its primary strength is the focus on specific interactions and how the other relatiojship responds.

However, it Intimatr not describe dysfunctional processes or other beneficial behaviors, and psychologic adaptation is not Intimate relationship Linden Alabama in the model.

Thus, the main gap in dyadic-level theories is that they do not fully capture and interrelate key elements and outcomes of relationship processes. Finally, behavioral marital theories emphasize interaction patterns and the role Intimate relationship Linden Alabama acceptance and commitment in relationship satisfaction. However, they do not focus on intimacy processes.

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We propose that more could be achieved from both a theoretical perspective and a clinical perspective by adopting a meta-analytic, dyadic-level approach to understanding marriage after cancer. We focus on component relationship processes that contribute Intimate relationship Linden Alabama intimacy in 2 categories: We have selected 3 relationship-enhancing processes to include in the integrative model.

The first is disclosure of concerns and feelings regarding the cancer experience reciprocal self-disclosure. Self-disclosure is a component of social support theory, the relationshkp process model of intimacy, cognitive-social processing theory, and the relationship resilience models.

Responsiveness is a component of social support theory, the relationshup process model of intimacy, and the relationship resilience models. The third process is Intimate relationship Linden Alabama engagement Intimate relationship Linden Alabama, which is an overarching term that we define as viewing cancer Intimwte relational terms ie, viewing cancer as having implications for the relationship as well as for Pussy in port Alabama partner individually and engaging in behaviors that are aimed at either sustaining Meet me for sex tonight Kusatsu wv enhancing the relationship while coping with cancer.

Relationship engagement combines elements of the relationship resilience models eg, relationship awareness and maintenancewhich our research suggests are relevant relationsip the cancer context.