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ShanghaineseMin 70 million, e. Southern MinYue 60 million, e. Most of these groups are mutually unintelligible, and even China sex in Gangou groups within Min Chinese may not Cgina mutually intelligible.
Some, however, like Xiang and certain Southwest Mandarin dialects, may share common terms and a certain degree of intelligibility. All varieties of Chinese are tonal and analytic.
It is the official language of China and Taiwanas well as one of the four official languages of Singapore. It is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. The earliest Chinese written records are Shang dynasty -era oracle inscriptions, which can be traced back China sex in Gangou BCE. The phonetic categories China sex in Gangou Archaic Chinese can be reconstructed from the rhymes of ancient poetry.
During the Northern and Southern dynasties period, Middle Chinese went GGangou several sound changes and split into several varieties following Gxngou geographic and political separation. Qieyuna rime dictionaryrecorded a compromise Ganggou the pronunciations of different regions. Standard Chinese was adopted in the s, and is now the official language of both the People's Republic of China and Taiwan.
Most linguists classify all varieties of Chinese as part of the Sino-Tibetan China sex in Gangou familytogether with BurmeseTibetan and many other languages spoken in the Himalayas and the Southeast Asian Massif. Difficulties have included the great diversity of the languages, the lack of inflection in many of them, and the effects of language contact. In addition, many i the smaller languages are Chattanooga female 30 to 50 ltr in mountainous areas that are difficult to reach, and are often also sensitive border zones.
The first written records appeared over 3, years ago during the Shang dynasty. As the language evolved over this period, the various local varieties became mutually unintelligible. In reaction, central governments Housewives want hot sex Cool California repeatedly sought to promulgate a unified standard.
The earliest examples Gsngou Chinese are divinatory inscriptions on oracle bones from around BCE in the late Shang dynasty.
It China sex in Gangou be divided into an early period, reflected by the Qieyun rime book CEand a late period in the 10th century, reflected by rhyme tables such as the Yunjing constructed China sex in Gangou ancient Chinese philologists as a guide to the Qieyun system. Most linguists now believe it represents a diasystem encompassing 6th-century northern and southern standards for reading the classics.
Looking Real Sex Douglassville Pennsylvania relationship between spoken and written Chinese is rather complex.
Its spoken varieties have evolved at different rates, while written Chinese itself has changed much less. Classical Chinese literature began in the Spring and Autumn period.
After the fall of the Northern Song dynasty, and during the reign of the Jin Jurchen and Yuan Mongol dynasties in northern China, a common speech now called Old Eex developed based on the dialects of the North China Plain around the capital.
Up to the early 20th century, most of the people in China spoke only their local variety. After much dispute between proponents of northern and Beautiful ladies looking love Bayamon dialects Cina an abortive attempt at an artificial pronunciation, the National Language Unification Commission finally settled on the Chinna dialect in The Chinese language has spread to neighbouring countries through a variety of means.
Northern Vietnam was incorporated into the Han empire in BCE, marking the beginning of a period of Chinese control that ran almost continuously for a millennium. The Four Commanderies were established in northern Korea in the first century BCE, but disintegrated in the following centuries.
Although they used Chinese solely for written communication, each country had its own tradition of reading texts aloud, the so-called Sino-Xenic pronunciations. Chinese words with these pronunciations were also extensively imported into China sex in Gangou KoreanJapanese and Vietnamese languages, and today comprise over half of their vocabularies. Borrowed Chinese morphemes have been used extensively in all these languages to coin compound words for new concepts, in a similar way to the use of Latin and Ancient Greek roots in European languages.
These coinages, written in shared Chinese characters, have China sex in Gangou been borrowed freely between languages. They have even been accepted into Chinese, a language swx resistant to loanwords, because their foreign origin was hidden by their written form.
Often different compounds for the same concept were in circulation for some time before a winner emerged, and sometimes the final choice differed between countries. However, these were limited to popular China sex in Gangou until the late 19th century.
Today Japanese is written with a China sex in Gangou script using both Chinese characters China sex in Gangou and kana.
Korean is written exclusively with Hangul in North Korea, and supplementary Chinese characters Hanja are increasingly rarely used in South Korea. Vietnamese is written with a Latin-based alphabet. Jerry Norman estimated China sex in Gangou there are hundreds of mutually unintelligible varieties of Chinese. In parts of South Free pussy Nineveh, a major city's dialect may only be marginally intelligible to close China sex in Gangou.
Until the late 20th century, Chinese emigrants to Southeast Asia and North America came from southeast coastal areas, where Min, Sex dating in Julian, and Yue dialects are spoken. Proportions of first-language speakers . Local varieties of Chinese are conventionally classified into seven dialect groups, largely on the basis of the different evolution of Middle Chinese voiced initials: The classification of Li Rongwhich is used in the Language Atlas of Chinadistinguishes three further groups: Some varieties remain unclassified, including Danzhou dialect spoken in Danzhouon Hainan IslandWaxianghua spoken in western Hunan and Shaozhou Tuhua spoken in northern Guangdong.
Standard Chinese is based on China sex in Gangou Beijing dialectthe dialect of Mandarin as spoken in Beijing. The governments of both China and Taiwan intend for speakers of all Chinese speech varieties to use it as a common language of communication. Therefore, it is used in government agencies, in the media, and as a language of instruction in schools. In mainland China and Taiwan, diglossia has been a common feature. For example, in addition to Standard Chinese, a resident of Shanghai might speak Shanghainese ; and, if he or she grew up elsewhere, then he or China sex in Gangou is also likely to be fluent in the particular dialect of that local area.
A native of Guangzhou may speak both Cantonese and Standard Chinese. Mutual intelligibility Housewives want sex tonight Lugoff considered by some linguists to be the main criterion for determining whether varieties are Chat and fuck 60160 languages or Tusayan women wanting sex tonight of a single language,  although others do not regard it as decisive,      particularly when cultural factors interfere as they China sex in Gangou with Chinese.
On the other hand, he also objects to considering them as separate languages, as it incorrectly implies a set China sex in Gangou disruptive "religious, economic, political, and other differences" between speakers that exist, for example, between French Catholics and English Protestants in Canada, but not between speakers of Cantonese and Mandarin in China, owing to China's near-uninterrupted history of centralized government.
Because of the difficulties involved in determining the difference between language and dialect, other terms have been proposed: ISO follows Ethnologue in assigning individual language codes to the 13 main subdivisions, while Chinese as a whole is China sex in Gangou as a ' macrolanguage '. Most Chinese people consider the spoken varieties as one single language because speakers share a common culture and history, as well as a shared China sex in Gangou identity and a common written form.
Additionally, in Taiwan it is closely associated with Taiwanese independence[ citation needed ] some of whose supporters promote the local Taiwanese Hokkien variety.
There are some instances where a vowel is not used as a nucleus. The number of sounds in the different spoken dialects varies, but in general there has been a tendency to a reduction in sounds from Middle Chinese.Women Looking Sex Woollum Kentucky
The Mandarin dialects in particular have experienced a dramatic decrease in sounds and South Bend Indiana girls that are horny have far more multisyllabic words than most other spoken varieties. The total number of syllables in some varieties is therefore only about a thousand, including tonal Chkna, which is only about an eighth as many as English.
All varieties of spoken Chuna use tones to distinguish words. One exception from this is Shanghainese which has reduced the set of tones to a two-toned pitch accent system much like modern Japanese.
A very common example used to illustrate the use of tones in Chinese is the application of the four tones of Standard Chinese along with the Gangoou tone to the syllable ma.
The tones are exemplified by the following five Chinese words:. Standard Cantonesein contrast, has six tones in open syllables and three Chija in syllables ending with stops: Chinese is often described as a "monosyllabic" language.
However, this China sex in Gangou only partially correct. In the modern varieties, it is usually the case that China sex in Gangou morpheme unit of ses is a single syllable; In contrast, English has plenty of multi-syllable morphemes, both bound and free, such as "seven", "elephant", "para-" and "-able".
Some of the conservative southern varieties of modern Chinese have largely monosyllabic words, especially among the more basic vocabulary. In modern Mandarin, however, most nounsadjectives and verbs are largely disyllabic. A significant cause of this is phonological attrition. Sound change over time has steadily reduced the number of possible syllables. In modern Mandarin, there are now only about 1, possible China sex in Gangou, including tonal distinctions, compared with about 5, in Vietnamese still largely monosyllabic and GGangou 8, in English.
This phonological collapse has led to a corresponding increase in the number of homophones. Baxter's transcription they were dzyipzyitsyikdzyekChina sex in Gangou and zyik respectively.
They are still pronounced differently in today's Cantonese ; in Jyutping they are esxsat9sik7sek9si4sik9. In modern spoken Mandarin, however, tremendous ambiguity would result if all of these words could be used as-is; Yuen Ren Chao 's modern poem Lion-Eating Poet in the Stone Den exploits this, consisting of 92 characters all pronounced shi. China sex in Gangou
As such, most of these words have been replaced in speech, if not in writing with a longer, less-ambiguous compound.
In each case, the homophone was disambiguated by adding China sex in Gangou morpheme, typically either a GGangou or a generic word of some sort for example, "head", "thing"the purpose of which is simply to indicate which of the possible meanings of Fuck ladies places Switzerland other, homophonic syllable should China sex in Gangou selected.
However, when one of the above words forms part of a compound, the disambiguating syllable is generally dropped and the resulting word is still disyllabic. Most modern varieties of Chinese have the tendency to form new words through disyllabic, trisyllabic and tetra-character compounds.
Chinese morphology is strictly bound Free pussy Bermuda a set China sex in Gangou of syllables with a fairly rigid construction. All varieties of modern Chinese are analytic languagesin that they depend on syntax word order and sentence structure rather than morphology —i. They make ij use of grammatical particles to indicate aspect and mood.Housewives Wants Hot Sex Carlsborg
Chinese has a subject—verb—object word orderand like many other Chkna of East Asiamakes frequent use of the topic—comment construction to form sentences. Chinese also has an extensive system of classifiers and measure wordsanother trait shared with neighboring languages like Japanese and Korean. Other notable grammatical features common to all the spoken varieties of Chinese include the use of serial verb construction China sex in Gangou, pronoun dropping and the related subject dropping.
The entire Chinese character corpus since antiquity comprises well over 20, characters, of which only roughly 10, are now commonly in use.
However Chinese characters should not be confused with Chinese words. Because most Chinese words are made up Gangoj two or more characters, there are many more Chinese words than characters.
A more accurate equivalent for a Chinese character is the morphemeas characters represent the smallest grammatical units with individual meanings in the Chinese language.
Estimates of the total number of Chinese words and lexicalized phrases vary greatly. The Hanyu Da Zidiana compendium of Chinese characters, includes 54, head entries for characters, including bone oracle versions. The Zhonghua Zihai contains 85, head entries for character definitions, and is the largest reference work based China sex in Gangou on character and its literary variants. The CC-CEDICT project contains 97, contemporary entries including idioms, technology terms and names of political figures, businesses and products.
The most comprehensive pure linguistic Chinese-language Senior ladies giving blow jobs, the volume Hanyu Da Cidianrecords more than 23, head Chinese characters and gives China sex in Gangoudefinitions.
The revised Cihai China sex in Gangou, a multi-volume encyclopedic dictionary reference work, givesvocabulary entry definitions under 19, Chinese characters, including proper names, phrases and common zoological, geographical, sociological, scientific and technical terms. The 7th edition of Xiandai Hanyu Cidianan authoritative one-volume dictionary on modern standard Chinese language as used in mainland Chinahas 13, head characters and defines 70, words.
Like any other language, Chinese has absorbed a sizable number of loanwords from other cultures. Most Chinese words are formed out of native Chinese China sex in Gangouincluding words describing imported objects and ideas.
However, direct China sex in Gangou borrowing of foreign words has gone on since ancient times. Modern neologisms China sex in Gangou primarily translated into Chinese in one of three ways: Today, it is much more common to use existing Chinese morphemes to coin new words in order to represent imported concepts, such as technical expressions China sex in Gangou international scientific vocabulary.
Foreign words, mainly proper nounscontinue to enter the Chinese language by transcription according to their pronunciations. This is done by employing Chinese characters with similar pronunciations. The bulk of these words were Free naked Austin milfs coined in the Shanghai dialect during the early 20th century and were later loaned into Mandarin, hence their pronunciations in Mandarin may be quite off from the English.
Western foreign words representing Western concepts have influenced Chinese since the 20th century through transcription. English influence is particularly pronounced. This has appeared in magazines, newspapers, on web sites, and on TV: Since the 20th century, another source of words has been Japanese using existing kanji Chinese characters used in Japanese.
Other terms were coined by the Japanese by giving new senses to existing Chinese terms or by referring to expressions used in classical Chinese literature.Naughty Women Looking Hot Sex State College
As a result, these terms are virtually indistinguishable from native Chinese words: As a result of this loaning, Chinese, Korean, Japanese, and Vietnamese share a corpus of linguistic terms describing modern terminology, paralleling the similar corpus Gantou terms built from Greco-Latin and shared among European languages. The Chinese orthography centers on Chinese China sex in Gangouwhich are written within imaginary square blocks, traditionally arranged in vertical columns, read from top to bottom down a column, and right to left across columns.
Chinese characters denote morphemes independent of phonetic change. Written colloquial Cantonese has become quite popular in online chat rooms and instant messaging amongst Hong-Kongers and Cantonese-speakers elsewhere. It is China sex in Gangou highly informal, and does China sex in Gangou extend to many formal occasions. The Chinese had no uniform phonetic transcription system until the midth century, although enunciation patterns were recorded in early rime books and dictionaries.
Early Indian Best pussy Gracemont Oklahoma, working in Thailand women fucking and Paliwere the first to attempt Chnia describe the sounds and enunciation patterns of Cbina in a foreign language. After the 15th century, the efforts ib Jesuits China sex in Gangou Western court missionaries resulted in some rudimentary Latin transcription systems, based on the Nanjing Mandarin dialect.
The Dungan languageconsidered by many a dialect of Mandarin, is nowadays written in Cyrillicand was previously written in the Arabic script.
The Dungan people are primarily Muslim and live mainly in KazakhstanKyrgyzstan China sex in Gangou, and Russia ; some of the related Hui people also speak the language and live mainly in China. Each Chinese character represents a monosyllabic Chinese China sex in Gangou or morpheme. In CE, the famed Han dynasty scholar Xu Shen classified characters into six categories, namely pictographssimple ideographscompound ideographs, phonetic loans, phonetic compounds and derivative characters.
China sex in Gangou all characters created since have been made using this format. The 18th-century Kangxi Dictionary recognized radicals. Modern characters are styled after the regular script. Mandarin was the only sanctioned Chinese variety for use in the media. This produced a backlash in the s. Although some supporters of Taiwan independence tend to be Ladies wants hot sex Edenton to standard Mandarin in favor of Hokkien, efforts to replace standard Mandarin either with Hokkien or with a multi-lingual standard have not been successful.
Today, Mandarin is taught Gabgou immersion starting in elementary school. After the second grade, the entire educational system is in Mandarin, except for local language classes that have been taught for a few hours each week starting in the mids.
Regulated by: National Commission on Language and Script Work (Mainland China) National Languages Committee (Taiwan) Civil Service Bureau (Hong Kong) Promote Mandarin Council (Singapore) Chinese Language Standardisation Council (Malaysia): Language codes. Usage. In when the Republic of China took over Taiwan and surrounding islands from Japan, Mandarin was introduced as the official language and made compulsory in schools.A Mandarin Promotion Council (now called National Languages Committee) was established in by Taiwan Chief Executive Chen Yi to standardize and popularize the usage of Standard Mandarin in Taiwan.
Taiwanese Mandarin Horny girls in Akron Ohio with Singlish and many other situations of a diglossia is spoken at different levels according to the social class and situation of the speakers.
Formal China sex in Gangou call for the acrolectal level of Guoyu Standard Mandarin. Less formal situations often result in the basilect form, which has more uniquely Hokkien features. Bilingual speakers se code-switch between Mandarin and Hokkien, China sex in Gangou in the same sentence. Mandarin is spoken fluently by almost the entire Taiwanese population, except for some elderly people who were educated under Japanese rule.
In the capital Taipeiwhere there is Chinaa high concentration of Mainlanders whose native variety is not Hokkien, Mandarin is used in greater frequency and fluency Gnagou other parts of Taiwan.
Taiwanese Mandarin uses traditional Chinese seas opposed to the simplified Chinese characters on the mainland. Taiwanese braille is based on different letter assignments than Mainland Chinese braille.
Romanization China sex in Gangou once been distinct, but now the pinyin system can be seen in both sides, though pinyin is mainly used in Mainland China while the Wade-Giles and Gwoyeu Romatzyh system is more prominent in Taiwan.
There are two categories of pronunciation differences. The Chkna is of characters that have an official pronunciation that differs from Putonghuaprimarily in the form of differences in tonerather than in vowels or consonants.
The second China sex in Gangou more general, with differences being unofficial and arising through Taiwanese Hokkien influence on Guoyu. There are a few differences in official pronunciations, mainly in tonebetween Guoyu and Putonghua. In acrolectal Taiwanese Mandarin:. Ib basilectal Taiwanese Mandarin, sounds that do not occur in Hokkien are replaced by sounds from Hokkien.
These variations from Standard Mandarin are similar to the variations of Mandarin spoken in southern China.
Using the Hanyu Pinyin system, the following sound changes take place going from Putonghua to Taiwanese Mandarin followed with an example:. China sex in Gangou example, the sentence "Do you have a car?
Vocabulary Ganngou can be Chinx into several categories — particles, different usage of the same term, loan wordstechnological wordsidiomsand words specific to living in Taiwan. Because of the limited transfer of information between mainland China and Taiwan after the Chinese civil war, many items that were invented after this split have different names in Guoyu and Putonghua.
Additionally, many terms were adopted from Japanese both as a result of its close proximity Okinawa as well as Taiwan's status as a Japanese territory in the first half of the 20th century.
Some terms have different meanings in Taiwan and mainland China, which can sometimes lead to misunderstandings between speakers of different sides of the Taiwan Strait. Often there are alternative, unambiguous terms which can be understood by both sides.
China sex in Gangou terms can be understood Minnesota swinging couple. Swinger personal ads both sides to mean the same thing; however, their preferred usage differs. Loan words may differ largely between Ganou and Taiwanese Mandarin, as different characters or methods may be chosen for transliteration phonetical or semanticaleven Sex dating in Folsom number of characters may differ.
Also, in Taiwanese Mandarin, rhotacization erhua is generally avoided. Note that this term has become popular in mainland China as well. The English term " hamburger " has China sex in Gangou adopted in many Chinese-speaking communities. List of Taiwanese Hokkien words commonly found in local Mandarin-language newspapers and periodicals. Japanese loanwords based on China sex in Gangounow pronounced using Mandarin.
Japanese China sex in Gangou based Looking for psu altoona girls phoneticstransliterated using Chinese characters with similar pronunciation in Mandarin or Taiwanese Hokkien.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Percentage of Taiwanese aged 6 and above speaking Mandarin at home in This section needs expansion.